When Giants Ruled the Earth - Part 1
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Abstract: There were giants in the Earth in those days... and also afterwards.
Giants In Myth and History
Prominent references in the Bible and numerous other religious and historical texts from around the world make prominent mention of a time in mankind's distant past wherein giants walked the Earth. At one time the belief in giants was as prevalent as the belief in angels, but now the belief in things unusual and supernatural in general seems to be increasingly falling prey to the relentless onslaught of the modern age of rationalism and almighty science. It appears it is now up to these shadowy beings to make themselves known once more, or else disappear forever into the ranks of myth and legend. Ironically, it may be science, that implacable enemy of myth, that may resurrect the very giants whose existence it had sought in vain to erase from the memory of man.
The ancient Near East, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia, and Europe in particular all have stories of abnormally large humans of various sizes. From tribes of unusually tall, strongly built men ranging anywhere from 8-12 feet in height to solitary giants towering several miles high, stories of giants are among the favorites of storytellers worldwide. However, whereas some giants are perceived as gentle and harmless, even beneficent, more often than not, giants were described as being possessed of wicked minds and insatiable appetites — engaging in unnatural acts shocking even to the modern mind. These wicked sons of Belial were known for their immense size, raging appetites, devious minds, aggressive behavior, technological sophistication and, above all, skill in the art of war.
All together, these features proved to be a deadly combination, and the giants conquerered and enslaved all but the strongest foes with ease. As a result, these wicked giants of old were usually to be found ruling over large masses of normal-sized human beings — whom we now know as homo sapiens — keeping them as slaves and, it is whispered, as fodder for various unsavory uses. Constantly at war with homo sapiens, whom the giants considered to be inferior due to their small size and moderate disposition, the giants constantly lived on the knife's edge of either absolute domination or total extermination — giving no quarter, and in turn, receiving none.
As Larkin & Teale explain in their classic popular work on the subject, Giants,
Giants varied in size, but were certainly beyond classification by human standards both in terms of size and power. For example, the Book of Enoch relates that angels sent by God to guard the earth were seduced by the beauty of terrestrial women who subsequently gave birth to demoniacal sons 3,000 cubits [approx. 4,500 feet] high. Later, ancient historians tell us, Og, the King of Bashan, who lived three thousand years, escaped the Flood by wading only knee-deep beside the Ark. He was able to roast a freshly caught fish by holding it up to the sun. Upon his death, one of his bones was used as a bridge to span a river. Attempting to destroy an Israelite camp, mighty Og ripped up a mountain six miles long at its base and bore it on his head on the trek towards the camp. Fortunately Moses, a comparative sprat merely ten cubits tall, jumped high into the air to strike Og on his forty-five foot high ankle with a ten-cubit long axe, thus felling and ultimately slaying his foe.
Although the Jewish legendary material regarding the huge size of Og and Moses are clearly midrashic in nature, the Bible makes no bones about the existence of giants in the ancient world, both in the antideluvian world and afterwards. As Moses said in Genesis 6:4, "There were giants in the earth in those days; and also afterwards". Giants have plagued Earth since the very earliest times, and the earliest known records of giants in the Earth come from the land of the Bible: the ancient Near East.
Giants In The Ancient East
Save perhaps Plato's accounts of the titans — the giant sons of Poseidon who founded ancient Atlantis the oldest known records of giants come from that region of the world known as the ancient Near East, generally considered to be the cradle of known civilization. The ancient Near East as we know it today encompassed a region that is generally centered around the area between the rivers Nile and Euphrates — the area that God had promised to Abraham and his descendants forever. (Gen. 15:18) — and stretches as far east as Afghanistan and as far west as Greece.
Giants In The Time Of Adam
The earliest references to giants occur in the very earliest times in Earth's history, before even the time of Adam when, it was believed by some, a "pre-Adamic race" walked the Earth. This race, which was apparently gigantic in stature, was created by a mysterious group of divine beings who had come down from heaven and had artificially manipulated the genes of the various kinds of animal life that God had created in order to create a humanoid lifeform of gigantic stature that displayed numerous animal characteristics. These were the class of giants known as the "pre-Adamites".
It is easy to say that Adam was the first human being, created by God, from whom the rest of mankind originated, and that's that — end of story. However, though no one disputes that God created Adam, the first homo sapiens, there is some dispute as to whether or not homo sapiens was in fact the first type of human on this planet. Significant evidence of the existence of a race before Adam, a pre-Ademic race exists both in religious and historical texts and in the fossil record. In fact, numerous forms of proto-human have been discovered, including such notables as homo neanderthalis and homo erectus, each showing a small improvement over the previous form. And each of these races of proto humans appeared suddenly in the fossil record, almost as if they had been manufactured.
These races, all of which preceded or were contemporaneous with homo sapiens, we will therefore henceforth refer to generically as homo artificialis — genetically manufactured mankind. Artificialis, instead of being created out of whole cloth as was homo sapiens, appears to have been woven together through a process of genetic experimentation — patched together from various different pre-existing animal species. The DNA of existing animal species was spliced together with that of other species by these divine beings in order to create a breed of human that possessed the specific characteristics that they desired. Meddling with God's Creation, these divine beings — whom we shall henceforth refer to as "fallen angels" — apparently created homo artificialis as a sort of "vehicle" through which they could operate in order to interact with the material world. Though these fallen angels had originally been sent to Earth merely to watch over the Creation, according to the Bible, the Book of Enoch and related texts, these angels fell from grace, disobeying their divinely mandated boundary of "look, don't touch", and got personally involved. Moreover, not only did they get involved in the world, they got very involved in the world, taking things into their own hands into order to reform God's Creation into a form that better suited their wishes, giving themselves physical means through which they could fashion earthly destinies for themselves contrary to what God had originally intended. Coming down to Earth, the fallen angels, led by the demons Semjaza and Azazel, divided up Earth amongst themselves, a rule that continues to this day.
Gods Genetic Warfare
In order to stop the despoilment of His creation by these rebellious "lesser gods", the fallen angels, YHWH created homo sapiens to supplant and eventually destroy their abhorrent offspring that were running rampant all over His Creation. YHWH, according to the book of Genesis, created perfect homo sapiens mankind in His own perfect image. He then placed Adam in a perfect environment — the "Garden of Eden". Adam had been specially designed for the Garden, and the Garden had been specially designed for Adam — both were designed to be in perfect shalom balance with the other. There Adam and his wife, Eve, had they remained loyal to YHWH, would have been fruitful, multiplied, and subdued the Earth, slowly but surely turning the whole Earth into an Edenic paradise. Moreover, in the process of slowly but surely subduing the Earth, they would also have slowly but surely supplanted and destroyed the accursed artificialis strains.
However, their perfect walk with God was stopped when a "serpent" tempted them to eat the "fruit" of a "tree" that had been forbidden to them. (Genesis 2-3) Though most interpreters believe that this tree was a literal tree and the sin of eating the fruit was simply the sin of disobeying God's directive, another more meaningful explanation is that the tree they were forbidden to eat from was in fact symbolic of a variant type of DNA. In this scenario, Adam and Eve as homo sapiens represented a pristine form of DNA, symbolized by the "Tree of Life", as opposed to the patchwork DNA of the pre-Adamites, homo artificialis, that was symbolized by the "Tree of Knowledge". "The Fall" then, was not just a breaking of trust with YHWH, though that was certainly part of it. The Fall was caused by the intermarriage between Adam and Eve and their descendants and the mysterious pre-Adamic race, the result being that the genetic purity of homo sapiens was compromised.
In short, the new homo sapiens, which had been intended to replace the old homo artificialis, instead of replacing it, instead merged with it and thus actually helped in its continuance. As a result, Adam and Eve's descendants — save a chosen few — lost their genetically pure status, becoming corrupted by the DNA of the giant artificialis that they were intended to replace, and YHWH's strategy of gradually phasing out the pre-Adamites was nullified. This was the first stage in the ongoing "genetic warfare" between YHWH and the rebels, a war by proxy that set the pattern for the rest of human history, where the genetic "seed of the woman" would constantly be battling the genetic "seed of the serpent" for dominion over Earth:
"And I will put enmity
between thee and the woman,
and between thy seed and her seed;
he shall crush thy head,
and thou shalt bruise his heel."
Giants In The Time Of Noah
In stage two of YHWH's genetic war against the giants, from Adam to Noah, "the seed of the woman" — homo sapiens — remained relatively pure for a time. However, after several generations had passed, it became increasingly compromised to the point where pure homo sapiens nearly became extinct. Homo artificialis with its superior size and technological sophistication, quickly gained an upper hand in the genetic "war between the seeds", with dire consequences for all mankind — and even Earth itself.
Though the evidence for fallen angels interacting with God's Creation before the creation of Adam is still largely speculative from the theological perspective, the evidence for fallen angels tampering with man and his environment after the creation of Adam is fairly substantial. Numerous theologians have pondered over the enigmatic passage in Genesis 6, where a highly unusual and rather chilling event took place:
1 When men began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them,
2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.
3 Then the LORD said, "My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days will be a hundred and twenty years."
4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days — and also afterward — when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.
Whereas some source-critical scholars tend to dismiss Genesis 6 as "a fragment or motif taken from an ancient Near Eastern myth," some even going as far as describing it as a "cracked, erratic boulder" that does not belong in what they perceive as an otherwise homogeneous storyline, others see it as an important stage in the underlying theme of the Old Testament, and perhaps of the entire Bible — that of the war between YHWH and the rebels, described in Genesis 6 as "the sons of God".
The identity of the "sons of God", mentioned in Genesis 6 as the progenitors of the giants, has been a subject of a significant amount of speculation. Scholars point out that the word "God" in the Old Testament is usually the Hebrew elohim, literally, "gods" in the plural. This has caused no small consternation among scholars who want to reconcile the aggressively monotheistic Yahwistic religion with the frequent usage in the Bible of a divine name that indicates that God is actually a plurality of deities. As Cooke explains, "Any serious investigation of conceptions of God in the Old Testament must deal with recurrent references which suggest a pluralistic conception of deity. Beings other than Yahweh are referred to variously as "sons" or as an "assembly", "council", etc. What do these references mean? Do they refer to divine or to human entities? How are they related to the God of Israel?"
Azazel leading the rebel angels to the newly-formed Earth. Variously called "sons of God", "fallen angels", demons and devils, these beings appear to be a splinter faction from the heavenly host that, in the most ancient times, came to Earth to found kingdoms apart from the authority of YHWH. Image from Dore's Illustrations for "Paradise Lost" .
Though other theories have their merits, the clear answer is that the sons of God were (and are) heavenly beings. Theologians are generally in agreement that YHWH is presented in the Bible as the chief God of a pantheon of lesser deities, generically termed "the sons of God". Though most of these divine beings, typically referred to as "angels" in the Bible, remained loyal to YHWH, some opted to rebel against Him and His divine directives. Though it is not clear as to exactly how many of this heavenly host rebelled against YHWH, some speculate, based upon Revelation 12:3-4, that as many as one-third of the angels — described symbolically as "stars" in the text — followed Semjaza, Azazel and a group of other powerful angels into rebellion against YHWH: "Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads. His tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth." These "fallen stars" are generally considered by theologians to be fallen angels — the same fallen angels who tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden, and have continued to have a malificent effect on mankind ever since.
Michael and the loyal angels defeating "the dragon" Satan and the rebel angels and casting them down from heaven to Earth. Image from Gustave Dore's "A Crowned Virgin: A Vision of John" (Rev. 12) in The Dore Bible Illustrations.
The "intermarriage" between these fallen angels and the giants continued on unabated thoughout the antediluvian period. Without having given any thought to the consequences such actions might have on YHWH's well-ordered Creation, the fallen angels continued to visit and genetically modify their horrid creations, making improvements in their physical and mental capabilities as well as giving them knowledge and gifts of technology that they could use in their quest to rule the world. These "gifts" included such skills as the ability to develop tools and weapons, read the signs and seasons in the stars, distill medicines from plants, and even use cosmetics to enhance beauty. However, instead of improving the lot of mankind, the fallen angels' worthless gifts of technology actually had the effect of making things worse. As described in the Book of Enoch,
And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all coloring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal taught astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven.... (1 Enoch 8:1-4)
The effect of giving mankind technology and methods of manipulating matter, what we now know as "the sciences", merely allowed the wicked giants of old greater ability to further disrupt the shalom of YHWH's formerly well-ordered cosmos. Moreover, the inherent danger of the intermarriage between the human and the divine is that it would result in the creation of a "master race" of super beings with a practically limitless lifespan and superior capabilities that could be used to conquer not only Earth, but possibly even heaven itself. As van Gemeren explains,
The perverted nature of man's thoughts (6:5) may be inferred from (6:3). Being under God's judgment since the Fall, man made an attempt to circumvent God's plan by being enticed to the Satanic scheme of intermarriage with demonic beings with the hope of ultimate prolongation of life. The resultant super-race, produced by the intermarriage of 'the sons of God' and the daughters of men, is in God's judgment still basar ('characterized by flesh', verse 3). Hence it is also observed that the super-race of the nephilim-gibborim was characterized as belonging to the Earth. To crush the attempt of introducing man into the realms of the divine, God sovereignly and justly judged man to death in the Flood.
homo artificialis nephili
It is here in Genesis 6 that the giants are first given a name: the nephilim. From the Hebrew root n f l, "to fall", "to come down", or "to be thrown down" depending on the tense of the verb, the word "Nephilim" means, literally, the ones who came down — in this case, to Earth. As Birney explains, "The word "nephilim" occurs only here and in Numbers 13:33. In Numbers it is used of the Anakim, who were of great stature. The LXX translates "giants" [gigantes], and other old Greek versions translate "assailants" or "violent men". Various ideas have been tied to the root NPL, to fall, e.g., to fall from heaven (fallen angels)."
The Nephilim were the gigantic offspring that resulted from the union of the fallen angels and "the daughters of men", that grew to be of a tremendous stature and possessed of a titanic arrogance and will-to-power that rivaled that of their Satanic fathers. As Stephen Quayle explains in his seminal work, Genesis 6 Giants,
The Nephilim that were produced by the angel/mankind marriage were much different from either of their parents. This, too, went against God's plan for the Earth in which each animal and human being was to reproduce "after its own kind". [Genesis 1:24] This is perhaps the best demonstration that the parents of these creatures were not simply descendants of Cain and Seth. Had they been, they would have produced human offspring, rather than the Nephilim. The Nephilim were more than simply large beings or giants in the way giants are normally thought of today. When the Greek Septuagint was created, the Hebrew word Nephilim was translated into Greek as gegenes. This is the same word used in Greek mythology for the "Titans", creatures created through the interbreeding of the Greek gods and human beings. The English words "genes" and "genetics" are built around the same root word as gegenes; genea meaning "breed" or "kind". Thus, the choice of this word again suggests a genetic component to the creation of these giants.
Though Quayle appears to promote the idea that the Nephilim were actually formed by combining the DNA of the fallen angels and human women, since angels are spirit and thus do not have DNA, we hold to the thesis that the Nephilim were genetically manufactured beings created from the genetic material of various pre-existing animal species. Thus, to fit them into our scientific paradigm, we should officially term the Nephilim as a subclass of homo artificialis: homo artificialis nephili.
Thus, the fallen angels did not personally interbreed with the daughters of men, but used their godlike intellect to delve into the secrets of YHWH's Creation and manipulate it to their own purposes. And the key to creating or recreating man, as we have (re)discovered in the twentieth century, is the human genome — DNA. Quayle points out that the Greek antecedent of the word "giants" is the word gegenes, from which was derived the Greek word gigantes (Genesis 6:4, LXX), from which we in turn derive the English word "giant". Moreover, gegenes, besides being the root of the word "giant", is also the root of the words "genes", "genetics", "geneology", and so forth. Thus, the concept of genetic manipulation was "spliced in" to the ancient conception of giants. Quayle's extensive research on the subject also has unearthed some frightening scientific statistics:
While modern ethics has prevented scientists from pursuing eugenics (the creation of more perfect "supermen" by modifying human genetic components), it is completely possible that modifications in human genetic components might create a very different being from human DNA. A hint of what might result from such a modification was seen in April 1997, when scientists at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore revealed that they had discovered a gene in mice which they called growth/differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8). When mice cells were altered genetically to delete this gene, the creatures that were conceived from these altered eggs grew enormous muscles, becoming "super mice" for all practical purposes. The scientists wrote in the science journal Nature, "We disrupted the GDF-8 gene by gene targeting in mice. [Mice lacking the gene] are significantly larger than wild-type animals and show a large and widespread increase in skeletal muscle mass. Individual muscles of mutant animals weigh two to three times more than those of wild-type animals." Now notice that this again goes well beyond what would be seen if the animals were simply given a growth hormone. These animals, with the GDF-8 gene, were not only stronger, they were two to three times larger. In other words, the super mice were stronger and considerably larger than their natural brothers and sisters having an unaltered genetic makeup. Imagine a human being so altered, who is stronger and two or three times larger than an average person, and you'll see the modern equivalent of the ancient giants, the "mighty men" of the biblical accounts.
Quayle also points out that the giants did not suffer from a hormonal imbalance, commonly known today as "gigantism", as those who suffer from gigantism usually suffer from a number of debilitative diseases that make movement for them difficult and painful. This is quite different from the powerful, proportionally built, athletically superb warriors portrayed in the Bible and other ancient texts. So, according to Quayle, there is definitive proof that genetic manipulation can in fact result in the development of a gigantic version of a particular species — in this case, mice. But can the same thing be done with humans? We may know soon.
The rabbinic literature also confirms that the Nephilim were indeed a giant, wicked species of early mankind that had existed before the Flood, and also afterward, during the time of Moses. Newman explains,
Regarding the "Nephilim", the rabbis apparently used Num 13:33, where the term is associated with the Anakim at the time of the Exodus. With this hint and the aid of Deut. 2:10-11, 20-21, they obtained five other names for the Nephilim by which to describe them using etymological word-play. Two of these are rather supernatural sounding: "Gibborim: ... the marrow of each one's thigh bone was eighteen cubits long"; "Anakim: ... their necks reached the globe of the sun." The term "Nephilim" is understood as teaching that "they hurled (haphilu) the world down, themselves fell (nephelu) from the world, and filled the world with abortions (nephilim) through their immorality.
As Newman points out, several subclasses of Nephilim appear to have existed before the Flood, and also afterwards. One of those that existed before the Flood were the "Gibborim", the "mighty men of old".
The Balance of the Force
The shalom peaceful balance of the Garden of Eden was destroyed by the tyrannical and warlike methods employed by the Nephilim. Instead of wealth earned by honest toil, the Nephilim, and their horrid children, the Gibborim, plundered the wealth of others and heaped it up in vast hordes for the purposes of conspicuous consumption, gorging while others starved. Despising hard work and God's institution of marriage life, the Gibborim sought only for temporary pleasures, achieving their goals through merciless murder, plunder and rapine. Instead of loving their neighbors and working together with them for the common good, they instead sought to enslave them if they were of use to them, or destroy them if they were not. In these ways, the Nephilim echoed in their Godless actions their divine parents' rejection of YHWH's ordinances. As Kline explains, "Within this succession of the bene elohim, the marriage ordinance was desecrated and the extension of dominion was sought by violence rather than through godly labor". The Gibborim created no wealth, and added no value to the natural equation. They were simply giant parasites living off of the work of others, and off of nature itself. Moreover, by taking any wives they chose from both artificialis and sapiens, creating vast harems of women that bore only their children, they reduced the ability of Godly men — whose presence was beneficial to Earth — to procreate and continue. In this way the Gibborim multiplied like a virus at the expense of the host: wasting resources, killing off healthy cells, and spreading poisons all over the face of Earth. In the end, using their techniques of murder, plunder, and rapine, homo artificialis systematically subverted and destroyed homo sapiens.
Though on the face of it it might seem that homo artificialis had won the genetic "arms race" and thus proved themselves the superior species, had the Gibborim won and wiped out homo sapiens forever, they would have eventually disappeared as well. Without homo sapiens to exploit, they would have quickly turned on and destroyed each other, destroying all life on Earth in the process. Their need to dominate and destroy came out of the essential emptiness of their souls, which they sought in vain to fill with earthly pleasures. However, the more they stole, the emptier their souls became, and they had to conquer and plunder more and more to fill the emptiness inside them until all life on Earth was in peril of being destroyed. And even if they had conquered the whole world, they still would have lost their souls. Clines aptly describes this hyperaggressive tendency of the Gibborim as "an insane acceleration of the Fall; it is self-affirmation to the point of destruction." Without the stable, productive presence of homo sapiens, the Gibborim would have had no one to plunder and enslave. Without the preservative, "salt and light" influence of God's people, the Gibborim would have flown into a frenzy of conquest and destruction (which, just before the Flood, is exactly what they did). Thus, by systematically eliminating homo sapiens, homo artificialis guaranteed its own extinction — proving that it was, in fact, inferior.
The worthless Gibborim created nothing of value, and destroyed everything of value that they touched. Like black holes devouring light-giving stars, these living dead devoured all life and light wherever they went, consuming everything and returning nothing. Well did Jude describe them and their latter-day relations when he described them as "shepherds who feed only themselves. They are clouds without rain, blown along by the wind; autumn trees, without fruit and uprooted — twice dead. They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved forever." (Jude 1:12-13)
The main reason homo artificialis failed and had to be destroyed was that it was out of balance with its environment. The appetites of the giants were so immense that in order to feed themselves and satisfy their lusts they were forced to conquer and plunder others, and in the process they destroyed the people and infrastructure required to create these resources. Moreover, they paid no attention to their environment, cutting down whole forests, exhausting Earth's natural resources, and polluting the lakes, rivers, and even the genes of men and animals in order to accomplish their pointless goal of dominating Earth. But of what use is Earth if, in the process of conquering it, you have destroyed it? In contrast, homo sapiens had been created to fit into the Earthly environment, to reap and sow according to the seasons, to acquire wealth through hard work, and not plunder — to maintain a harmonious balance with nature, taking only as much as he needed, and returning the rest. Had Adam and his progeny continued on with this strategy, the entire Earth would have eventually been turned into an Edenic paradise. However, by rejecting YHWH and His shalom strategy of gradually reproducing and slowly but surely subduing Earth, instead being tempted into following the vainglorious conquest strategy taught by the Nephilim, Adam and Eve also became subject to the same natural laws that the Nephilim had broken. By going for the short term gains brought by the methods used by the Nephilim, mankind upset the delicate balance with Earth that was necessary to be truly successful over the long term. As a result, mankind was punished by the very Earth that they had set out to conquer, as Earth rebalanced itself, and vomited them out — with the Flood. (Cf. Leviticus 18:24-28)
The Great Flood
In conclusion, in stage two of the genetic "proxy" warfare between YHWH and the rebels, from Adam to Noah, the rebels won the battles, but lost the war. In order to destroy the Nephilim and the accursed Gibborim and restore the shalom natural balance between God, man, and Earth, God sent the Great Flood to wipe the slate clean. In order to restore the balance, YHWH was forced to destroy all life on Earth, most of which had become either genetically tainted, polluted, or otherwise rendered unusable. As a result of the Flood, all of the work the fallen angels had done to either corrupt or destroy homo sapiens had been rendered useless, and their vain attempt to raise an army in order to storm heaven was thwarted. But all was not lost. YHWH had saved one genetically pure man of the line of Seth, Noah, along with his three sons and their wives, and a sampling of untainted animal species. (Genesis 6:9-9:17) In effect, though the sons of Seth had lost the battles, YHWH had won the war. Fulfilling the prophecy of Genesis 3:15, the heel of the man had been bruised, but the head of the serpent had been crushed.
As world war raged across the planet, the Nephilim masters and their Gibborim armies fighting the final battles against each other to decide who would finally rule Earth, Noah obeyed YHWH and shut the doors on the antediluvian world. Soon thereafter, the world that was, died. However, though the Flood wiped out all of the Nephilim and Gibborim, their progenitors — the fallen angels who cannot die — watched and waited for the time when they could start the next phase of the great genetic war again.
Image adapted from
"Fall of Day", by William Rimmer
from the Museum of Fine Arts: Boston.
When Giants Ruled the Earth - Part 2 - Coming soon
* David Larkin and Sarah Teale, Giants (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1979)
* Ronald S. Hendel, "When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of Men", Bible Review Summer 1987, 9-10.
* Ronald K. Brown, editor, The Book of Enoch (San Antonio, TX: The Guadalupe Baptist Theological Seminary Press, 2000)
* David L. Petersen, "Genesis 6:1-4, Yahweh and the Organization of the Cosmos" Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 13 (1979)
* Gerald Cooke, "The Son(s) of (the) God(s)" Zeitschrift fur die Altestamentliche Wissenschaft 76 (1964)
* David J.A. Clines, "The Significance of the 'Sons of God' Episode (Genesis 6:1-4) Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 13 (1979) (Genesis 1-11)
* William A. van Gemeren, "The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1-4 (An Example of Evangelical Demythologization?" Westminster Theological Journal 43 (1987)
* Leroy Birney, "An Exegetical Study of Genesis 6:1-4" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (Winter 1970)
* Stephen Quayle, Genesis 6 Giants (Bozeman, MT: End Time Thunder Publishers, 2002)
* Robert C. Newman, "The Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2, 4" Grace Theological Journal 5.1 (1984), "The Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2, 4"
* Charles DeLoach, "Giants and the Flood", in Giants: A Reference Guide from History, the Bible, and Recorded Legend (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1995)
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